What is R?
R is a dialect of the S language.
What is S?
S is a language that was developed by John Chambers and others at Bell Labs.
S was initiated in 1976 as an internal statistical analysis environment|originally
implemented as Fortran libraries.
Early versions of the language did not contain functions for statistical modeling.
In 1988 the system was rewritten in C and began to resemble the system that we
have today (this was Version 3 of the language). The book Statistical Models in S
by Chambers and Hastie (the white book) documents the statistical analysis
Version 4 of the S language was released in 1998 and is the version we use today.
The book Programming with Data by John Chambers (the green book)
documents this version of the language.
In 1993 Bell Labs gave StatSci (now Insightful Corp.) an exclusive license to
develop and sell the S language.
In 2004 Insightful purchased the S language from Lucent for $2 million and is the
In 2006, Alcatel purchased Lucent Technologies and is now called Alcatel-Lucent.
Insightful sells its implementation of the S language under the product name
S-PLUS and has built a number of fancy features (GUIs, mostly) on top of
it|hence the \PLUS”.
In 2008 Insightful is acquired by TIBCO for $25 million
The fundamentals of the S language itself has not changed dramatically since
In 1998, S won the Association for Computing Machinery’s Software System
Design of the R System
The R system is divided into 2 conceptual parts:
1 The \base” R system that you download from CRAN
2 Everything else.
R functionality is divided into a number of packages.
The \base” R system contains, among other things, the base package which is
required to run R and contains the most fundamental functions.
The other packages contained in the \base” system include utils, stats, datasets,
graphics, grDevices, grid, methods, tools, parallel, compiler, splines, tcltk,
There are also \Recommend” packages: boot, class, cluster, codetools,
foreign, KernSmooth, lattice, mgcv, nlme, rpart, survival, MASS, spatial,
Design of the R System
There are about 4000 packages on CRAN that have been developed by users and
programmers around the world.
There are also many packages associated with the Bioconductor project
People often make packages available on their personal websites; there is no
reliable way to keep track of how many packages are available in this fashion.
Some Useful Tutorial for Beginners
A R Application IN SHINY